lono

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[size=medium]Testosterone levels positively predict social success and negatively predict physical aggression.[/size]


[size=medium]Socially dominant young boys were found to have more testosterone in their teens.[/size]

"T levels could be a signal of social success rather than of physical aggression, as suggested first by Sapolsky (1991), examining experiential influences on T and CORT secretion in male baboons in natural environment, concluded that aggressiveness and social status were associated with higher T, while subordinates were with lower levels, and more recently in human adolescents by Schaal, Tremblay, Soussignan, and Susman (1996) in a study that analyzed the association of male pubescent T with social dominance and physical aggression. Boys perceived as socially dominant by unfamiliar peers, from age 6 to 12, were found to have concurrently higher levels of T at age 13 than boys perceived as less socially dominant. 626 J.M. Ramirez / Aggression and Violent Behavior 8 (2003) 621–644In contrast, boys who had a history of high physical aggression, during the same age range, had lower T levels at age 13 compared with boys with no such a history. T levels therefore were positively associated with social success rather than with physical aggression. High T levels in adolescent boys may thus be regarded as a marker of social success in a given context, rather than of social maladjustment as suggested in previous studies. Adolescents may try to gain social status through dominance and leadership, using aggressive and assertive methods. If successful, T is expected to increase, and if unsuccessful, T would decrease because the negative status associated with failure. "


A very comprehensive study on testosterone and personality traits


TABLE 1. Correlations Between Individual Testosterone Levels and Inventory Scales (N=58)
Correlation
Scale Coefficient (r)a

1. From Olweus Aggression Inventory


Physical Aggression                0.36xxx
Verbal Aggression                0.38xxx
Physical + Verbal Aggression                 0.44xxx
Aggressive Attitude and Impulses                 0.10
Aggression Inhibitory Responses                 -0.03
Preference for Physical Sports                 0.03

2. From Olweus Q Inventory

Aggression                 0.10
Self-Confidence (Toughness)                 0.18
Feelings of Maladjustment and Inadequacy                 -0.08
Closeness to Parents                 -0.20
3. Lack of Frustration Tolerance                 0.28x
Antisocial Behavior                 0.15


4. From Thurstone Temperament Schedule

Vigorousness                 0.09
Tempo                0.10

5. From Eysenck Personality Questionnaire

Extraversion-lmpulsivity                 0.06
Extraversion-Sociability                 0.08
Extraversion (total)                 0.13
Psychoticism                 0.15
6. Impulsiveness                 0.16
Monotony Avoidance                 0.22

7. From MCA

Somatic Anxiety                 0.03
Psychic Anxiety                 0.10
Muscular Tension                 0.07
Anxiety (total)                 0.07

8. FromCPI

Socialization scale                 -0.18

9. FromSOQ

Session 1
Worried last night (with Testosterone Session 1)                 —0.02
Worried this morning (with Testosterone Session 1)                 -0.06
Unpleasantness of venipuncture (with Testosterone Session 1)                 -0.11
Composite of all 3 items (with Testosterone Session 1)                 -0.08
Session 2
Unpleasantness of venipuncture (with Testosterone Session 2)                 0.13

On a two-tailed test (df=56), correlations of 0.26 and 0.34 are needed for significance at the 0.05 (x) and 0.01 (xx)levels, respectively. On applying a one-tailed test (for the Aggression, Self-Confidence, Lack of Frustration Tolerance, and Antisocial Behavior scales), the corresponding values are 0.22 and 0.31. A correlation of 0.34 is then significantat the 0.005 level (xxx).

[size=medium]Closer analysis of the individual items
[/size]
of the Verbal and Physical Aggression scales revealed an interesting pattern: It was primarily items involving a response to provocation, including threat or unfair treatment, that showed a clear correlation with testosterone levels (Table 3). The first eight items of Table 3 all contain an

element of provocation, by adults or peers. The correlations with testosterone were quite high for several of these items, considering the fact that the reliability of individual items is generally rather low. Conversely, the correlations for the last two items, which do not imply provocation, were negligible. In addition, the only peer rating scale containing an element of provocation, Verbal Protest, showed the highest correlation (r = 0.24) with testosterone. The wording of this rating dimension was as follows: "When a teacher criticizes him, he tends to answer back and protest."


[hr]

Testosterone has very little correlation with body build


"Several of the findings in this study are
relevant to the hypothesis of a relationship between high testosterone level and
strong body build and aggressive behavior
(3). First, it was noted that the linear
correlations between testosterone levels
and chest circumference, wrist circumference, weight, body surface, and body
build were all low and nonsignificant
(although all were positive). Furthermore,
the assumption that individuals with a
relatively mesomorphic or athletic body
build might have higher testosterone
levels was examined by means of a test for
curvilinear relationship. The results,
however, were negative. Finally, although
the gymnastic grades were positively (but
nonsignificantly) related to testosterone
levels, physical strength as measured by
highly reliable peer ratings (maximum
number of pull-ups) showed no relationship to testosterone. These results, then,
obtained with different methods give no
or only weak support to the hypothesis of
a relationship between strong, muscular
body build and testosterone level. "


[hr]


Testosterone most strongly correlated to reactive aggression


"...it appears that dimensions reflecting intensity

and/or frequency of aggressive responses
to provocation and threat were most
clearly related to testosterone. Other
dimensions measuring aggressive attitude
or impulses and unprovoked physical or
verbal aggression showed only weak positive correlations with testosterone."


[hr]


Correlation Between Testosterone Levels and Individual Items from the Verbal and Physical
Aggression Scales (W = 58)


Item Correlation
Coefficient (r)
Verbal Aggression (5 items)

1. When an adult is unfair to me, I get angry and protest      [size=medium]0.18[/size]
2. When an adult tries to take my place in a line, I firmly tell him it is my place [size=medium]     [size=medium]0.24[/size][/size]
3. When a teacher criticizes me, I tend to answer back and protest     [size=medium]0.33[/size]
4. When a teacher has promised that we will have some fun but then changes his (her) mind, I protest    [size=medium]0.-19[/size]
5. When an adult tries to boss me around, I resist strongly     [size=medium]0.33[/size]
6. When a boy starts fighting with me, I fight back      [size=medium]0.33[/size]
7. When a boy is nasty with me, I try to get even with him      [size=medium]0.37[/size]
8. When a boy teases me, I try to give him a good beating      [size=medium]0.15[/size]
9. I fight with other boys at school      [size=medium]0.05[/size]
10. I really admire the fighters among the boys       [size=medium]0.11[/size]

These items do not contain a clear element of provocative challenge. "



[hr]


Men with high testosterone have high reactive aggression and low levels of frustration tolerance (impatience)


The most important positive finding of
the study was the clear association between testosterone levels and self-reports
of physical and verbal aggression, mainly
reflecting responsiveness to provocation
or threat. Several other aggressive
dimensions did not correlate or correlated
only weakly with testosterone. This pattern of findings further substantiates the
claim (8) that it is important to closely
delineate different aspects of aggression
in future studies; omnibus measures are
not likely to produce clear and consistent
results.
In addition, there was a positive relationship between testosterone and relative
lack of frustration tolerance (impatience),
although the correlation was somewhat
smaller than for the aggression scale. We
conclude that the two dimensions found
to be particularly salient in the present
study, i.e., responsiveness to provocation
and frustration tolerance, should be included in further studies of testosteronebehavioral relationships. On the basis of
animal studies (8 — 10, 51) and general
knowledge of behavioral changes associated with pubertal development in the
human male, a positive relationship between these two dimensions and testosterone appears very likely.


[hr]


Testosterone might only effect behavior in regards to social status



"Levels of testosterone are stable overtime (Sellers,Josephs, & Mehl, 2007), demonstrate convergent and discriminant validity (Sellers et al., 2007) and have high predictive validity in specific situations—namely, those in which one’s status or dominance is uncertain. In multiple studies, we have demonstrated that high testosterone men and women are motivated to maintain high status, and bothered when they lose it. When placed in a lower status position, high testosterone individuals become aroused, distracted, and determined to  regain status. (Josephs, Sellers, Newman, & Mehta, 2006; Newman, Sellers, & Josephs, 2005). Importantly, no testosterone differences emerged in control conditions in which status was neither won nor lost. In fact,several authors have suggested that testosterone only relates to  behavior when status is threatened (Sapolsky, 1991; Wingfield et al., 1987). "
 

lono

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Testosterone predicts rank attainment in baboons when hierachy is in flux

"An important qualification to these behavioral findings(many of which are predicted by single measurements of T) is that T predicts behavior only in situations in which one’s statusis threatened (Josephs et al., 2003; Morgan et al., 2000; Ostner et al., 2002; Ruiz-de-la-Torre &  Manteca, 1999; Wingfield et al., 1987). According to a review by Sapolsky (1991), there is almost never a relationship between T and rank during times of stability among the male olive baboon. Rather, it is only when status is in flux or undetermined that we find a strong relationship between T and rank. This research suggests a person—situation interaction: High T individuals are more aware of their status, but T should only predict behavior when status is up for grabs. "
 

lono

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Testosterones anti-anxiety effect is due to it's conversion to DHT in the brain

[font=Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif]"Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2005 Jun;30(5):418-30. Epub 2005 Jan 25. Related Articles, Links [/font]

[font=Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif]Testosterone's anti-anxiety and analgesic effects may be due in part to actions of its 5alpha-reduced metabolites in the hippocampus.[/font]

[font=Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif]Edinger KL, Frye CA.[/font]

[font=Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif]Department of Psychology, The University at Albany-SUNY, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12222, USA; Department of Biological Sciences, The University at Albany-SUNY, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12222, USA.[/font]

[font=Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif]Although testosterone (T) may have effects to enhance analgesia and reduce anxiety, its effects and mechanisms are not well understood. We hypothesized that if T's anti-anxiety and analgesic effects are due in part to actions of its 5alpha-reduced metabolite (dihydrotestosterone-DHT) and/or its 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase reduced metabolite (3alpha-androstanediol-3alpha-diol), in the hippocampus, then androgen regimens that increase levels of these metabolites in the hippocampus should produce anti-anxiety behavior, and analgesic effects, in gonadectomized (GDX) male rats. In Experiment 1, GDX rats were administered T, DHT, 3alpha-diol (1mg/kg, SC), or vehicle. In Experiment 2, GDX rats had T, DHT, 3alpha-diol-containing inserts, or empty control inserts applied to the dorsal hippocampus immediately prior to behavioral testing. Androgen-administered rats (SC or intrahippocampal) showed significantly more exploratory behavior in the open field and elevated plus maze, less freezing in response to shock, and longer tailflick and pawlick latencies. [/font][font=Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif]These findings suggest that T's anti-anxiety effects may be due in part to actions of its 5alpha-reduced metabolites in the dorsal hippocampus."[/font]
[hr]


Testosterone and cortisol jointly work to predict social aggression


"[size=small][font=verdana,geneva,lucida,][size=small][font=verdana,geneva,lucida,][size=small][font=verdana,geneva,lucida,][size=small][font=verdana,geneva,lucida,]High levels of testosterone and low levels of cortisol have been associated with social aggression in several species but it seems that in those individuals wherein these hormonal markers combine social aggression is most violent. 

High levels of testosterone have been associated with dominant aggressive behavior in both men (Dabbs Jr., Carr, Frady, & Riad, 1995; Dabbs Jr. & Morris, 1990) and women (Dabbs Jr. & Hargrove, 1997; Dabbs Jr., Ruback, Frady, Hopper, & Sgoutas, 1988). Low cortisol levels have also been linked to aggressive social tendencies (McBurnett et al., 1991; Vanyukov et al., 1993; Virkkunen, 1985), whereas high levels of cortisol have been reported in anxious depression (Bohus, de Kloet, & Veldhuis, 1982; Johnson et al., 1992; Schulkin, 2003a), and seem to be linked to low mood (van Honk et al., 2003a), non-clinical anxiety and submissive behavior (Brown et al., 1996; Sapolsky, 1990).[/font]
[/font][/size][/font][/size][/font][/size][/size]
"



[size=small][font=verdana,geneva,lucida,][size=small][font=verdana,geneva,lucida,]Testosterone increases dominance in [font=verdana,geneva,lucida,]low cortisol individuals and subordinance in high cortisol individuals[/font][/font][/font][/size][/size]

[size=small][font=verdana,geneva,lucida,][size=small][font=verdana,geneva,lucida,]"[size=small][font=verdana,geneva,lucida,][size=small][font=verdana,geneva,lucida,]In human and non-human animals the steroid hormones cortisol and testosterone are involved in social aggression and recent studies suggest that these steroids might jointly regulate this behavior. It has been hypothesized that the imbalance between cortisol and testosterone levels is predictive for aggressive psychopathology, with high testosterone to cortisol ratio predisposing to a socially aggressive behavioral style[/font][/font][/size][/font][/size][/font][/size][/size]

[size=small][font=verdana,geneva,lucida,][size=small][font=verdana,geneva,lucida,]Traditional theories propose that testosterone should increase dominance and other status-seeking behaviors, but empirical support has been inconsistent. The present research tested the hypothesis that testosterone's effect on dominance depends on cortisol, a glucocorticoid hormone implicated in psychological stress and social avoidance. In the domains of leadership (Study 1, mixed-sex sample) and competition (Study 2, male-only sample), testosterone was positively related to dominance, but only in individuals with low cortisol. In individuals with high cortisol, the relation between testosterone and dominance was blocked (Study 1) or reversed (Study 2). Study 2 further showed that these hormonal effects on dominance were especially likely to occur after social threat (social defeat). The present studies provide the first empirical support for the claim that the neuroendocrine reproductive (HPG) and stress (HPA) axes interact to regulate dominance. Because dominance is related to gaining and maintaining high status positions in social hierarchies, the findings suggest that only when cortisol is low should higher testosterone encourage higher status. When cortisol is high, higher testosterone may actually decrease dominance and in turn motivate lower status[/font][/font][/size]"[/size]


[size=small][font=verdana,geneva,lucida,][size=small][font=verdana,geneva,lucida,]Participants were 103 boys (mean age 13.7) referred to a delinquency diversion program. Testosterone and cortisol levels were determined from saliva samples collected during resting conditions and related to self-report scores on overt and covert aggression.

Linear regression analyses revealed a significant interaction between cortisol and testosterone in relation to overt aggression, with a significant positive relationship between testosterone and overt aggression in subjects with low cortisol levels but not in subjects with high cortisol levels.[/font]
[/font][/size][/size]


[font=verdana,geneva,lucida,]The here described role of testosterone in status seeking behavior, with particular attention to the distinctions and parallels between reactive aggression and social cooperation, is an important step forward in our understanding on how the hormone affects the brain, and how this relates to the expression of social behavior. Testosterone is not simply a hormone of aggression, but promotes reflexive dominance contesting through eye-contact, influences highly complex social behavior, and can thereby even promote social cooperation. Thus testosterone, promotes the status enhancing effects of contributing to the public good and community, but testosterone also promotes nonverbal dominance competitions in the form of staring contests and reactive aggression. Since testosterone also has important anxiolytic properties, and low basal testosterone levels are associated with anxiety especially with in the social realm (Giltay et al., 2012), this intricate relationship of testosterone with status might benefit future research on how and when testosterone can be used in the treatment of these disorders (Haglund et al., 2007).[/font]"



[hr]



@"just lol buddy boyo"

This is scary:

"[font=verdana,geneva,lucida,]For instance, 90 percent of American men have evidence of chlorpyrifos in their urine. This shouldn’t be surprising, since up to 19 million pounds of the stuff was distributed across the United States in 1999 alone, much of it in household products like tick-and-flea powder for pets, lawn treatments, and common insecticides. Though residential use is now restricted, chlorpyrifos is still common in agriculture, as well as in some professional applications; for most people, diet is now the main source of exposure. In a recent Harvard study, men with the highest chlorpyrifos exposure typically had 20 percent less testosterone than those with the lowest exposure.[/font] "



[hr]

Testosterone inhibits fear and promotes dominance


[font=Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif]"Approach–avoidance generally describes appetitive motivation and fear of punishment. In a social context approach motivation is, however, also expressed as social aggression and dominance. We therefore link approach–avoidance to dominance–submissiveness, and provide a neural framework that describes how the steroid hormone testosterone shifts reflexive as well as deliberate behaviors towards dominance and promotion of social status. Testosterone inhibits acute fear at the level of the basolateral amygdala and hypothalamus and promotes reactive dominance through upregulation of vasopressin gene expression in the central-medial amygdala. Finally, the hormone can, depending on social context and prenatal hormone exposure, promote both pro- and antisocial behaviors and decisions through its effects on prefrontal–amygdala interactions. All these effects of testosterone, however, serve to increase and maintain social status.[/font]"



[hr]


Prenatal T predicts womens rating of facial dominance and masculinity


Schaefer, Mitteroecker, Fink, and Bookstein (2009) demonstrated that men’s facial shape related to prenatal levels of testosterone was very similar to the facial  shape that emerged from women’s ratings of masculinity and dominance. More recently,  Windhager et al. (2011) found that men’s faces that were considered more dominant by  women were more similar to physically strong faces. Using handgrip strength as a general  measure of strength and with the help of a geometric morphometric (GMM) toolkit (e.g.,  Mitteroecker and Gunz, 2009), they were able to create a facial shape of men’s strength. 
 

lono

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Prenatal testosterone predicts dominance and status but not attractiveness

Women rated facial images of these males for dominance, masculinity and attractiveness. Our results show that male 2D : 4D was significantly negatively related to perceived dominance and masculinity but not attractiveness. Circulating testosterone levels were not related to dominance, masculinity or attractiveness. These findings suggest that: (i) high prenatal levels of testosterone serve to 'organize' male facial features to subsequently reflect dominance and masculine characteristics presumably activated during puberty; and (ii) attractiveness is not directly related to testosterone levels. We conclude that facial dominance and masculinity reflect a male's perceived status rather than his physical attraction to women.


[hr]


Women can accurately spot slayers and sluts. They purposefully downgrade slayers





[size=medium]At the University of St. Andrews, volunteers of both genders could tell, with above-chance accuracy, whether people were promiscuous (open to one-night stands and sex without love) just by looking at photos of their faces. Among women, high-estrogen feminine faces were accurately rated as the most promiscuous—and the most beautiful. Among men, the Lothario face (a composite of the most promiscuous males) had high-testosterone features: slightly smaller eyes, larger noses, and broader cheekbones. Women accurately judged this face as belonging to a playboy and downgraded it in favor of men who looked—and actually were—more committed and monogamous.

 
[/size]
[hr]


High testosterone men are less easilly excited


"Ellis and Coontz (1990) try to provide a partial explanation for the effects of testosterone. They explain that testosterone has a strong presence in the male feotus before birth and passes into the brain where they claim it affects development. The effects are strongest in male foetuses as the levels of testosterone are much higher...[they] claim that testosterone in the brain at this early stage and again later produces three main effects, each of which they see as related to criminality. 

First it controls reticular arousability and thus the way in which external stimuli will be passed on to the brain. They link this low reticular arousal with criminality, because people needing very high levels of stimulation will act to start the necessary stimulation which might include criminal behaviour. Conversely such people will be less responsive to negative stimulation which in others would deter such behaviours"


[hr]


Testosterone affects masculinization via oxidation into oestrogen


Because male-typical behaviours developed as the result of a burst of testosterone, but in the absence of receptors for the hormone, the researchers suspect that the testosterone in the surge is being converted into oestrogen to carry out the newborn sexual-differentiation. “Masculinisation of neural pathways in response to the testosterone surge at birth proceeds primarily under the control of oestrogen,” they conclude. Androgen receptors are not the master regulators for male behaviours, but rather, the researchers say, a “gain control mechanism” which amplifies such behaviours—or, when the receptors are absent, dials laddish behaviour down.


[hr]


oestrogen, not testosterone, responsible for aggressiveness


If testosterone qua testosterone is not the demonic potion of legend, its yangian counterpart, estrogen, may not be so innocent. Reporting last month at the annual meeting of the American Pediatric Society, Dr. Jordan W. Finkelstein, Dr. Howard Kulin and their colleagues at Pennsylvania State University said that they compared the effects of giving estrogen therapy to girls who suffered from delayed onset of puberty with that of giving testosterone to boys who likewise were late in sexually maturing. The girls showed earlier and larger increases in aggression than did the boys, until the boys received the last and highest dose of testosterone.
The researchers propose that for both sexes, the cause of the teen-age spike in aggressive and very likely insolent behavior is estrogen. As scientists only lately are beginning to appreciate, most of the effect of testosterone on the brain is paradoxically estrogenic in nature. That is because the brain is rich in the enzyme aromatase, which converts testosterone into estrogen. The newly transformed hormone then acts on the nerve cells of the brain through estrogen receptors, proteins designed specifically to link up with it.
A male's brain also has some receptors for testosterone, but they are far fewer in number or distribution, and the converting enzyme aromatase does not leave much testosterone around to hook up with these androgen receptors anyway.
Thus, in both boys and girls, as they reach adolescence and their respective sex hormones surge, the influence of either hormone on the brain and behavior probably works its dark art as estrogen. In the Pennsylvania study, the girls may have had a jump on aggressive behavior over the boys because they were given direct injections of estrogen and therefore their brains did not need to go through the work of converting testosterone to estrogen.
The centrality of the brain's estrogen receptors to aggressive behavior was highlighted by a new study of receptor-deficient mice, presented at the endocrine meeting. Dr. Donald W. Pfaff of Rockefeller University in New York, his student, Sonoko Ogawa, and Dr. Kenneth S. Korach of the National Institutes of Health, have analyzed male mice genetically altered so that they lack nearly all estrogen receptors.
Testing the male mice in a variety of circumstances, the researchers determined that they were unusual in many ways. Normal male mice do not tend to wander across open fields as females do, but prefer to skulk along borders; males without estrogen receptors generally took the female attitude, and freely walked where they pleased. Ordinary males respond to intruders in their territory with violent attacks, chasing, biting and generally seeking to harm the interloper. These males react to newcomers tepidly if at all, perhaps nipping if the animal comes too close, but never attacking the stranger outright.
Significantly, the altered males still have all their androgen receptors intact. It is only the ability of their brain to respond to estrogen that is defective.
The researchers have yet to report on the behavior of female mice lacking estrogen receptors. Those results will probably break a few paradigms of their own.
Until then, perhaps it is time for a new hormonal cliche to explain aggression. How about this: The estrogen was so thick you couldn't beat it down with a rolling pin.


[hr]

High testosterone boys more verbally aggressive and assertive.



Daisy Schalling discovered that high testosterone levels in young males were associated with verbal aggression but not with actual physical aggression or fighting. This, she said, potrayed a desire, on behalf of the high testosterone boys, to protect their status by threats. The low testosterone level boys would tend not to protect their postiion, preferring to avoid conflict and remain silent. high testosterone boys tended to shun monotony; to enjoy physical and competitive sports and to be more extrovert and sociable; and care less about conventional rules and attitudes. Schalling thus portrays high testosterone boys as assertive, self assured, sociable, and liable to become angry when aroused.



Neither study suggests that there is a direct link between aggression and testosterone, but in certain social circumstances those with an ability to secrete high amounts of testosterone are more likely to resort to violence or aggression. The ability to secrete a high quantity of testosterone is a biological characteristic. Whether large amounts are secreted depends upon the situations in which the individual finds himself....Also action aggressive (Mazur and Booth, 1998) or anticipating aggression (Neave and Wolfson, 2003) raises the levels of testosterone. Sapolsky (1998) argues that it is aggression that elevates testosterone rather than the other way around, thus suggesting that environment is more important than biology; the monkey study would support this. Biology sets the capacity for testosterone production but that biology is meaningless without the social and environmental context.
 

lono

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[font=arial,sans-serif]High ranking chimp mothers give birth to sons with significantly lower cortisol levels.[/font][font=arial,sans-serif]

"Dominance status and reproductive experience are maternal characteristics that affect offspring traits in diverse taxa, including some cercopithecine primates. Maternal effects of this sort are widespread and are sources of variability in offspring fitness. We tested the hypothesis that maternal dominance rank and reproductive experience as well as a male's own age and dominance rank predicted chronic fecal glucocorticoid (fGC) concentrations in 17 subadult wild male baboons, Papio cynocephalus (median age 6.5 years), in the Amboseli basin, Kenya. Among these variables, maternal dominance rank at a subadult male's conception was the sole significant predictor of the male's fGC and accounted for 42% of fGC variance; sons of lower ranking mothers had higher fGC than did those of high-ranking mothers. This result is striking because subadult male baboons are approximately 4-6 years past the period of infant dependence on their mothers, and are larger than and dominant to all adult females. In addition, many males of this age have survived their mothers' death. Consequently, the influence of maternal dominance rank persisted well beyond the stage at which direct maternal influence on sons is likely. Persistence of these major maternal influences from the perinatal period may signal organizational effects of mothers on sons' HPA axis. Although short-term, acute, elevations in GC are part of adaptive responses to challenges such as predators and other emergencies, chronically elevated GC are often associated with stress-related pathologies and, thereby, adverse effects on fitness components.[/font]
"


High ranking males are less sensitive to the testosterone suppressive effects of cortisol

"[font=arial,sans-serif]The stress suppressed LH and testosterone (T) concentrations; previous work showed this to be due to stress-induced release of opiates and glucocorticoids, acting to inhibit LH release and testicular sensitivity to LH, respectively. There was considerable individual variation in this phenomenon, which was related to the social status of individual males. High ranking males (by reproductive criteria) were less vulnerable to the suppressive effects of stress on T concentrations and, in fact, showed transient increases in T concentrations during the first poststress hour. T concentrations in subordinates, in contrast, declined promptly and continuously. This difference in T profiles occurred despite similar suppressions of LH concentrations in both groups, suggesting a peripheral mechanism for the transient elevation of T concentrations in high ranking males. Part of this distinctive pattern had been shown to be due to the lesser sensitivity of the testes of high ranking males to the suppressive effects of glucocorticoids.[/font] "
[hr]
wishingwell said:
Rubbish sorter is on to something. :H:
This is all just a lead up so I can start talking about this















































High facial width to height ratio related to testosterone levels

[font=verdana,geneva,lucida,]"Recent research indicates that men with high levels of testosterone have certain facial characteristics that set them apart from men with less testosterone. In particular, they have what researchers call a higher facial Width-to-Height Ratio (fWHR) which compares the distance between cheekbones to the distance between the upper lip and midbrow. Men with a higher ratio have faces that appear a bit wider horizontally and bit compressed vertically (see below). Studies suggest they also tend to behave more often in ways we commonly associate with testosterone—including (sorry, guys) a greater willingness to cheat, exploit other people, commit fouls on a hockey rink, and behave aggressively in general."[/font]



[font=verdana,geneva,lucida,]http://motherboard.vice.com/blog/iro...-like-a-racist[/font]

[font=verdana,geneva,lucida,]http://www.mysmu.edu/faculty/normanl...errett2013.pdf[/font]

[font=verdana,geneva,lucida,]http://www.ehbea2013.com/ehbea_detai...files/1560.pdf[/font]
 

Timbuck2

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Funny how you would still call aggressive, low inhibition racists who beat up minorities for kicks weak, low t betas though. 

How does that work exactly?
 

lono

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Timbuck2 said:
Funny how you would still call aggressive, low inhibition racists who beat up minorities for kicks weak, low t betas though. 

How does that work exactly?

:legit:
 

Anakind

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lono said:
Prenatal T predicts womens rating of facial dominance and masculinity

Schaefer, Mitteroecker, Fink, and Bookstein (2009) demonstrated that men’s facial shape related to prenatal levels of testosterone was very similar to the facial  shape that emerged from women’s ratings of masculinity and dominance. More recently,  Windhager et al. (2011) found that men’s faces that were considered more dominant by  women were more similar to physically strong faces. Using handgrip strength as a general  measure of strength and with the help of a geometric morphometric (GMM) toolkit (e.g.,  Mitteroecker and Gunz, 2009), they were able to create a facial shape of men’s strength. 

It says before that circulating testosterone levels have a very low correlation to athletic performance. But here it shows prenatal T is actually the best indicator for strength. And other studies also show that in professional sports teams men with the most masculine 2D:4D ratios tend to be the top athletes. (There must definitely be some epigenetic reasons why high prenatal T men develop so much better into the rest of their lives.)

It shows once again it's all about lifestyle and nutrition of your mother during pregnancy. If she didn't eat lots of salmon and beef during the first weeks of pregnancy, you are fucked for life!
 

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Anakind said:
lono said:
Prenatal T predicts womens rating of facial dominance and masculinity

Schaefer, Mitteroecker, Fink, and Bookstein (2009) demonstrated that men’s facial shape related to prenatal levels of testosterone was very similar to the facial  shape that emerged from women’s ratings of masculinity and dominance. More recently,  Windhager et al. (2011) found that men’s faces that were considered more dominant by  women were more similar to physically strong faces. Using handgrip strength as a general  measure of strength and with the help of a geometric morphometric (GMM) toolkit (e.g.,  Mitteroecker and Gunz, 2009), they were able to create a facial shape of men’s strength. 

It says before that circulating testosterone levels have a very low correlation to athletic performance. But here it shows prenatal T is actually the best indicator for strength. And other studies also show that in professional sports teams men with the most masculine 2D:4D ratios tend to be the top athletes. (There must definitely be some epigenetic reasons why high prenatal T men develop so much better into the rest of their lives.)

It shows once again it's all about lifestyle and nutrition of your mother during pregnancy. If she didn't eat lots of salmon and beef during the first weeks of pregnancy, you are fucked for life!
Prenatal T is not about your mother it is about you. It is how much T your little prenatal balls produce.
 

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lono said:
Prenatal T is not about your mother it is about you. It is how much T your little prenatal balls produce.
That's determined by nutrition to a large degree.
 
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Anakind said:
lono said:
Prenatal T is not about your mother it is about you. It is how much T your little prenatal balls produce.
That's determined by nutrition to a large degree.
First I want to say great thread OP. Cortisol is the most important hormone in the body. Having low cortisol allows leaders to exsist. High cortisol makes you break under pressure. Leaders are cool under pressure whereas an incel...well we all know what happens to them when they encounter hardship :lol:

Also social status is positively correlated with cortisol. CEO, officers, politicians, etc all simply secret less of it and/or are resistant to its effects. That's why getting your cortisol under control is very important.

And OP anakind is spot on prenatal nutrition determines your prenatal T along with many other health markers.

https://chriskresser.com/health-begins-in-the-womb-and-even-before/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19072465

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23167588

Its the most important 9 months of your life so you best hope your mother wasn't binging on diet coke and Cheetos throughout it.
 

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ColezRightFoot said:
Its the most important 9 months of your life so you best hope your mother wasn't binging on diet coke and Cheetos throughout it.
You will soon hear some coping like "I agree that bad nutrition is bad for your health but it has nothing to do with Looks". :lol:
 

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any UKers know how to get test checked if you gp refuses?
 

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merlin said:
A good predictor of cortisol levels is how your mother interacted with you as a child. If she wasn't very loving or left you by yourself when you cried you will have much higher cortisol levels and stress response even as an adult and will also be more socially maladjusted. There was a study done on mice and their mothers, the mice who were licked less by their mothers had a much lower tolerance to stress when a strange mouse came in close contact with them, they were more likely to act hostile and aggressively iirc.
There we go again. One leads to the other. Which offspring is less likely to be loved by parents? Exactly, unattractive offspring. And high cortisol levels relative to other hormones during development just make you even uglier.
 
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Anakind said:
ColezRightFoot said:
Its the most important 9 months of your life so you best hope your mother wasn't binging on diet coke and Cheetos throughout it.
You will soon hear some coping like "I agree that bad nutrition is bad for your health but it has nothing to do with Looks". :lol:
Yep :lol: :lol:

Again with all these coping mechanisms. It's simple your environment determined your testosterone level through diet and exogenous hormone exposure. Sure some people's genetics are strong enough to resist change but this is simply not the case for the majority. 

Time to educate these parents on nutrition and stop putting out so many Incels!
 

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Reflex said:
any UKers know how to get test checked if you gp refuses?
You have to go to a urologist or endocrinologist right away for those things. Make an appointment and tell them you think you have low testosterone and feel all the symptoms.
[hr]
ColezRightFoot said:
Time to educate these parents on nutrition and stop putting out so many Incels!
But but but the media told us for decades that fat and cholesterol is bad for us so we need to give our kids pasta and cereals for breakfast instead of steaks and eggs.   :lol:
 

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This is all pathetic broscience to the max.

None of this social rank shit means anything. I know loners with massive skulls and a physical appearance that SCREAM high-T.

Meanwhile the president of my high schools student council = openly gay guy with hips as wide as his shoulders and 0 dimorphism. What I'm saying is, take all of these studies with a grain of salt. They mean literally NOTHING in the real world.
 
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Vertu said:
This is all pathetic broscience to the max.

None of this social rank shit means anything. I know loners with massive skulls and a physical appearance that SCREAM high-T.

Meanwhile the president of my high schools student council = openly gay guy with hips as wide as his shoulders and 0 dimorphism. What I'm saying is, take all of these studies with a grain of salt. They mean literally NOTHING in the real world.
You obviously did not read the studies or you did not understand them either way anecdotal evidence hardly disproves a mass experiment/analysis like those performed in said studies :lol:

@"merlin" 

Yes that may have much truth as people coming from broken homes always have higher cortisol production. No doubt the constant stress of not having people that care about and protect you raises cortisol. Just more proof that the best people are made not born. High success people often come from good homes with a mother and father or a good mentor. That's why I always encourage people to look for a mentor.

@"Anakind" 

Yep the villainizing of fats was the worst diet advice in the last hundred years FACT. These vital macronutrients are the precursors for all steroid hormones you stupid fucks!!!

Also they used to tell mothers to avoid high fat foods(butter, eggs, oils) while pregnant. Tried to link it to late life heart attacks and strokes. That's a recipe for an incel right there :lol:
 

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ColezRightFoot said:
Also they used to tell mothers to avoid high fat foods(butter, eggs, oils) while pregnant. Tried to link it to late life heart attacks and strokes. That's a recipe for an incel right there :lol:
Is it any wonder I turned into a framecel with Asperger's? My parents believed that shit all their lives thinking more than one egg a week would give you heart disease. :lol: