The transmission of anxiety within families is well recognized, but the underlying processes are poorly understood. Twin studies of adolescent anxiety demonstrate both genetic and environmental influence, and multiple aspects of parenting are associated with offspring anxiety. To date, the children-of-twins design has not been used to evaluate the relative contributions of genetic transmission compared with direct transmission of anxiety from parents to their offspring.
Anxiety and neuroticism measures were completed by 385 monozygotic and 486 dizygotic same-sex twin families (37% male twin pair families) from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden. Structural equation models tested for the presence of both genetic and environmental transmission from one generation to the next.
For both anxiety and neuroticism, the models provide support for significant direct environmental transmission from parents to their adolescent offspring. In contrast, there was no evidence of significant genetic transmission.
The association between parental and offspring anxiety largely arises because of a direct association between parents and their children independent of genetic confounds. The lack of genetic transmission may reflect there being different genetic effects on these traits in adolescence and adulthood. Direct environmental transmission is in line with developmental theories of anxiety suggesting that children and adolescents learn anxious behaviors from their parents through a number of pathways such as modeling. Future analyses should combine children-of-twins data with child twin data in order to examine whether this direct effect solely represents parental influences on the offspring or whether it also includes child/adolescent anxiety evoking parental anxiety.
He's a DOM slayer, actually.hospen said:king coach said:
we need killing
women hate non NT shy guys. For some reason my dad despite his good looks couldn't manage to build a social circle. and because of that I was doomed.
I'm lucky I look 95% like him. but that 5% makes a whole fucking difference, trust me (including health too)
Mughal said:My dad is NT. You are coping.
No I am not. he's probably ugly then no offense
shit ehhospen said:Browcel said:You wouldn't exist if your father married someone else. How about you reflect on that and be thankful.
nigger ill take that
AlwaysLearning said:mind sharing to us why you have not spoken to people in your age cohort for almost 3 years? You don't go to school or work?
Give us a breakdown of your childhood, teen-transition to adult life.
Isolated because my mental health started regressing because of a long story i dont feel like sharing right now. lost my friends, got embarassed in front of them etc.
My childhood was ok, good home, loving parents but school was hell, I often felt desperation there, some kid in kindergarden spat his food with water on me for no reason, 2 other kids who I thought were my friends bullied me, I wasn't liked in school for some reason, possibly because of my weird haircut and chubby cheeks and crooked teeth.